Exploring potential policy motivation and approaches to improve resource efficiency in emerging Asia
As resource consumption rates soar, especially in rapidly industrialising Asia, improving resource efficiency will be an important agenda. This study analyses socio-economic conditions and policy statements on natural resources in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Thailand, and Vietnam, to explore their motivation for resource efficiency policies and material flow analysis/accounting (MFA). Among them, Malaysia and Thailand could be significantly motivated to develop resource efficiency policies and MFA, particularly in terms of trade balance and manufacturing sector development. Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines do not have such conditions now. Indonesia and Vietnam, however, would be motivated in the longer term, considering their transition to an industrialised economy and the possibility of increasing domestic demand in an emerging economy context. Metals and industrial minerals are more imported than exported, would generally be prioritised resources in the study countries. This means that the 3Rs will be a vital approach for resource efficiency. In addition, some countries are resource exporting countries, which might consider the resource extraction impact. Whereas resource efficiency aspects are conceptually well reflected in their national
strategies, concrete resource efficiency policies have not been developed. These various socio-economic conditions would be significant to emerging Asia to develop concrete resource efficiency policies and MFA indicators.